Baku - the capital of the independent Republic of Azerbaijan, a large scientific and industrial center. According to its antiquity, size of territory and population of Baku is one of the oldest and largest cities of the East. Baku city - one of the most ancient cities of Azerbaijan. The citys name means "city of winds". Coat of arms of Baku - three torches on the backdrop of the sea waves. Azerbaijan has long called the "Land of Fire".
Old cityPalace of the Shirvan shahs which is the biggest monument of the Shirvan-Absheron branch of the Azerbaijan architecture. the Maiden Tower which is noted landmark and one of Azerbaijans most distinctive national emblems. In December 2000, both of them became the first location in Azerbaijan to be classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.Bukhara Caravanseray with its medieval courtyard served as a medieval inn and tavern in the 15th century while the Multani Caravanseray dates to the 14th century. Both inns were presumably built and used by merchants traveling by camel caravan from Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) and Multan (India). Both have since been converted into restaurants w hich serve traditional Azerbaijani cuisine.
The Temple of Fire (Atashgyah)A unique monument - a temple zoroastrians «Ateshgah» (XVII - XVIII centuries), built by pilgrims from India. The monument symbolises a cult of eternal fire and is annals page zoroastrianism. The Yanar Dag fire is never extinguished. Around this open fireplace the atmosphere is filled with the smell of gas. The flames emanate from vents in sandstone formations and rise to a height of 10 feet. Located on the Apsheron peninsula (Abseron Yasaqligi) north-east of Baku, Mardakan is a small town of flat roofs, named after the ancient tribe of the Mards. During the summer the town is popular with the inhabitants of Baku who own or rent dachas in the area, you can see also some old mansions some of which are now used as sanatoria. a round tower, and a larger one with a square tower. The larger castle dates from the 14 th century and is immediately visible as you approach Mardakan, although it is not built on a hill. This tower is about 25 m tall and has five floors. Within the walls there is a well and receptacles hewn from the rock for storing grain.
Gobustan State Reserve located west of the settlement of Gobustan, about 40 miles southwest of the centre of Baku was established in 1966 when the region was declared as a national historical landmark of Azerbaijan in an attempt to preserve the ancient carvings, mud volcanoes and gas-stones in the region. Gobustan State Reserve is very rich in archeological monuments, the reserve has more than 600,000 rock paintings, which depict primitive men, animals, battle-pieces, ritual dances, bullfights, boats with armed oarsmen, warriors with lances in their hands, camel caravans, pictures of sun and stars, on the average dating back to 5,000-20,000 years